Typical body structure
From the end of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century, automotive designers used their main energy in the development and innovation of automotive mechanical engineering. In the first half of the 20th century, after the basic structure of the car was invented, the car designers began to improve from the exterior of the car and introduced aerodynamics, fluid mechanics, ergonomics and industrial design (industrial). Concepts such as aesthetics, and strive to make the car meet the different needs of people of all ages, various classes, and even various cultural backgrounds in terms of appearance, so that the car becomes the best performance image of the combination of science and art, and finally achieves The most perfect state.
In 1915, Ford Motor Company produced a car different from the horse model. Its shape is very similar to a large box, and it is equipped with doors and windows. These cars are called “boxcars.” Because the shape of this type of car is similar to that of European ladies used for traveling and other occasions to lift the “seat” type of lightweight seat, it is named “sedan” in the catalog.
In 1934, Professor Lei Yi of the Center for Fluid Mechanics used a model car to test the air resistance of various bodies in a wind tunnel test. This is a historic experiment. In 1934, Chrysler of the United States first adopted a streamlined body shape design. In 1937, the German design genius Fernand Porsche began to design a car resembling a beetle shape. The beetle can not only crawl on the ground, but also fly in the air, its shape resistance is very small. Dr. Porsche maximizes the strengths of the Beetle shape
In 1945, Ford Motor Company focused on the development of new models. After several years of hard work, the historic V8 Ford was finally launched in 1949. Because this car changes the pattern of the previous car shape, the front fender and the hood, the rear fender and the luggage compartment cover are dissolved, the headlights and the radiator cover are also integrated, and the sides of the body form a smooth The car room is located in the middle of the car. The whole shape is like a small boat, so people call it a “boat type car.”
In order to overcome the excessively backward extension of the tail of the boat, a strong air vortex is generated when the car is driving at a high speed, and a fish-type car like a fish’s back is developed. In 1952, the GM car of the US General Motors Corporation created the era of fish-type cars. If you only look at the shape of the back of the car, the fish-type car and the beetle-type car are very similar. However, if you look closely, you will find that the angle between the back and the ground of the fish-type car is relatively small, the tail is long, and the airflow around the body is smoother, so the eddy current resistance is relatively small.
Although the “fish-type duck-tail” model partially overcomes the lift of the air when the car is driving at a high speed, it does not fundamentally solve the problem of the lift of the fish-type car. After a lot of exploration and experimentation, the designer finally found a new model – wedge shape. This type of vehicle is to tilt the whole body forward and downward, and the rear part of the body is straight as a knife. This shape can effectively overcome the lift. The first wedge-shaped car was the 1963 Stipek Abedi, which was highly regarded by automotive shape design experts. In 1968, GM’s Oldsmobile Toronado improved and developed the wedge-shaped car, which was adopted in 1968 for the Cadillac luxury sedan Eldo. The wedge shape is widely used in racing cars. Because the car first considers the effects of fluid mechanics (aerodynamics) on the car, the body can be made entirely in a wedge shape, and ride comfort is considered a secondary issue. For example, the Italian Ferrari sports car in the 1980s is a typical wedge shape.